Scientific Advisors

Evangelos S. Gragoudas, MD

Director of Retina Service Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary

Dr. Gragoudas is a leading clinician-researcher and has spent over 25 years investigating treatments for macular disorder and intraocular tumors. He has served as the Director of Retina Service at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary since 1985. His contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization, particularly as it relates to macular degeneration, are recognized worldwide. Dr. Gragoudas and his colleagues pioneered the development of photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. He has published over 200 articles in peer-reviewed journals and written or authored more than 100 chapters, reviews and books. He completed his medical training in Athens, Greece, and his ophthalmology residency at Boston University School of Medicine.

Wolfram Ruf, MD

Professor, Department of Immunology and Microbial Science,
The Scripps Research Institute

Dr. Ruf is a Professor in the Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis at the University Medical Center in Mainz, Germany, and a Professor of Immunology in the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif. Dr. Ruf’s research program is focused on the tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation pathway in thrombosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor biology. In addition to a long-standing interest in the structural biology and regulatory mechanisms of the TF-initiation complex, his research is currently focused on non-coagulant, signaling roles of the coagulation cascade, on signaling specificity of protease activated receptors (PARs) and on genetic models to study protease signaling pathways in important pathologies of the cardiovascular system, obesity, and cancer. He received his medical and doctoral training in Giessen, Germany, and joined Scripps in 1988 as a postdoctoral fellow and later faculty member.

Steven D. Schwartz, MD

Ahmanson Professor of Ophthalmology, Chief of the Retina Division
The Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA

Dr. Schwartz is the Ahmanson Professor of Ophthalmology at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he has served as an ophthalmologist and vitreoretinal surgeon since 1994 and as Chief of the Retina Division since 2002. Previously, Dr. Schwartz was a principal investigator for a number of early-stage clinical trials for retinal diseases, including the initial studies for Lucentis® as well as products in gene and cell therapy. Dr. Schwartz currently serves on the Board of Directors of the American Society of Retina Specialists. He received a B.A. from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.D. from the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, followed by a residency in Ophthalmology at the University of California, Los Angeles, and a vitreoretinal fellowship at Moorefield’s Eye Hospital in London.